February 20, 2012

நாட்டுப்புற கலைகள்

          Tamil Nadu is home to many natural resources, Dravidian architecture, hill and beach resorts, and art of entertainment. Art of entertainment is very famous for its folk song and dance. The folk song is also called Tamil Nattupura Padal. Tamil nattupura padalgal express the real life activity feelings which include the happy moments, sad pity, joy and even in death situation. It is pristine heights at a very early age. The three modes of entertainment classified as Iyal (Literature), Isai (Music) and Nadagam (Drama) had their roots in the rural folk theatre like Therukoothu. Many forms of group and individual dances with the classical forms for popularity and sheer entertainment value. Majority of these dances are still thriving in Tamil Nadu today.

Bharathanatyam
          Bharata Natyam is a classical dance form from the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu, practiced predominantly in modern times by women. The dance is usually accompanied by classical Carnatic music. It dates back to 1000 B.C. Its inspirations come from the sculptures of the ancient temple of Chidambaram. It was codified and documented as a performing art in the 19th century by four brothers known as the Tanjore Quartet whose musical compositions for dance form the bulk of the Bharata Natya repertoire even today. 


Karagaattam 
          Karagam is a folk dance with musical accompaniment, performed balancing a pot on the head. Traditionally, this dance was performed by the villagers in praise of the rain goddess Mari Amman and river goddess, Gangai Amman, performed with literature with water pots balanced on their heads. In Sangam literature, it is mentioned as 'Kudakoothu'. This dance has two divisions - one, Aatta Karagam and the other 'Sakthi Karagam'. Aatta Karagam is limited to the premises of sacred temples of Tamil Nadu, Sakthi Karagam is performed on public platforms too. 


          Today, the pots have transformed from mud pots to bronzeware and even stainless steel in modern times. The pots are decorated with a cone of flower arragements, topped by a paper parrot. This dance is very popular all over Tamilnadu, though its birth place is said to be Thanjavur. Most artistes hail from Thanjavur, Pudukottai, Ramanathapuram, Madurai, Tirunelveli, Pattukottai and Salem. This dance is danced by an individual or two persons. Both male and female performers participate in this.

Kummi
         Kummi is one of the most important and ancient forms of village dances of Tamilnadu. This is performed by women. This folk dance is a major attraction during the festive season of Pongal. It is also played during family functions such as the one celebrating puberty. It originated when there were no musical instruments, with the participants clapping their hands to keep time. 

          The women stand in a circle and dance clapping their hands rhythamically tolifting songs. The first line of the song is sung by the leading lady, which the others repeat.  Varieties of Kummi, such as, Poonthatti Kummi, Deepa Kummi, Kulavai Kummi, Kadir Kummi, Mulaipari Kummi.

Kavadi Aattam
          The ancient Tamils when they went on pilgrimage, carried the offerings to the gods tied on the either end of the long stick, which was balanced on the shoulders. In order to lessen the boredom of the long travel they used to sing and dance about the gods. Kavadi Aattam has its origin in this practice. Special songs were created to be sung while carrying the Kavadi Sindhu. This dance is performed only by men. It is done by balancing a pole with pots fixed on either end, filled with milk or cocunut water.   


          The poles are made from Purasai or Teak wood. On top, bamboo strips are bent like a half-moon, covered with saffron cloth and further decorated on the sides with peacock feathers. This is mainly a religious dance, performed in worship of Lord Murugan, the second son of Siva. The dance is accompanied by Pambai and Naiyandi Melam. 

Kazhai Kothu
          Kazhai Kothu is a performance of gymnastic specialised by Aryans. This is very similar to modern day circus. They travel in a group from place to place, entertaining the local people and thus earning a living. 

Kolaattam
          Kolaattam is an ancient village art. Kolattam, derived from Kol( a small stick), and Attam (play) is the name of a charming Tamil dance practiced by groups of young girls. This is mentioned in Kanchipuram as 'Cheivaikiyar Kolattam', which proves its antiquity. This is performed by women only, with two sticks held in each hand, beaten to make a rhythmic noise.  Kolattam is generally performed by a group of dancers comprising of twenty to forty performers or the minimum of eight members. The number of dancers are always in even numbers led by a leader.


          Pinnal Kolaattam is danced with ropes which the women hold in their hands, the other of which are tied to a tall pole. With planned steps, the women skip over each other, which forms intricate lace-like patterns in the ropes. As coloured ropes are used, this lace looks extremely attractive. It is starting with the Amavasi or Newmoon night after Deepavali.

Mayil Attam
          This is done by girls dressed as peacocks, resplendent with peacock feathers and a glittering head-dress complete with a beak. This beak can be opened and closed with the help of a thread tied to it, and manipulated from within dress.  The performer is not bare footed while dancing Mayil Attam. 
 
           Other similar dances are, Kaalai Attam (dressed as a bull), Karadi Attam (dressed as a bear) and Aali Aattam (dressed as a demon) which are performed in the villages during village get-togethers. Vedala Aattam is performed wearing a mask depicting demons.  

Sevai Attam
          This form of art is devoted to 'Thirumal' (Maha Vishnu) and is performed by village folk belonging especially to Nataka community. In this dance the performers forming a group, with one of them acting the buffoon, dance to the music of percussion instrument like 'urumi'. The classical songs and the measured steps with graceful movements are the special features of Sevai Attam. In Sangam works this had been known as 'Pinther Kuruvai'. In those days this was performed at the rear of a chariot procession either of a king or a deity.  

Silambattam
          Kol silambam or fighting with a long stick and even with swords is a martial art from the days of Tamil Kings. Fights were characterised by moves of self defence, practise of skillful methods of approaching the opponent, overpowering and subduing him, and finally teaching him a lesson, all to put an end to violence. 

          A violent fighting art has metamorphosed into a non-violent form of folk dance, adding stepping styles following the measure of time. It also teaches the performer the methods of the self defence in modern day world.  

Puli Attam
          Puli Attam is performed by young men with painted bodies in colours yellow and black, complete with fangs, head gear with ears, paws with claws and long tail, simulating the prancing, ouncing tiger in every ferocious move. Wildly beating drums add frenzy to the performance. 

          Sometimes, a goat is tied and brought along with the dancers, who pretend to pounce on it and kill it. This dance is regularly performed during temple festivals, drawing large crowds.

Oyilattam
          Oyil means beauty. This dance is hence the dance of beauty. Traditionally, it is danced only by men. Ten years ago women also began to participate. This dance is prevalent in the south districts and Kongu Nadu in particular. First a few people will stand in a row and start dancing with rhythmic steps with musical accompaniment. Intricate steps are used in martial arts, such as Silambattam. 

          Then gradually the row will become longer as the new comers and guests all join and dance along as they like. The dancers wear ankle-bells. Normally, the dance is performed with the accomplishment of musical instruments and songs. It is performed near the temples or public places in the morning and evening hours, at times even till midnight. Styles of Oyilattam differ from place to place.

Kai Silambu Attam
          This dance is performed in temples during Amman festivals or Navaratri festival. The dancers wear ankle-bells and hold anklets or silambu in their hands, which make noise when shaken. They perform various stepping styles jumps. The dance is in praise of all female deities, the most preferred being the powerful angry goddess - Kali or Durga.

Thappattam
          Thappu is the name of a rhythamic beat instrument and Thappattam is practiced among the suppressed classes of the people of the Tamil Nadu. The subtle form of dance accompanied by captivating music, is an ancient rural folk art which is even now popular in urban slum areas in villages.

Poikkal Kudirai Aattam
          This is the Dummy Horse Dance where the dancer bears the dummi figure of a horse's body on his/her hips. This is made of light-weighted materials and the cloth at the sides swings to and fro covering the legs of the dancer. 

          The dancer dons wooden legs which sound like the hooves of the horse. The dancer brandishes either a sword or a whip. This folk dance needs much training and skill. This dance is accompanied by Naiyandi melam or Band music. This is connected to the worship of Ayyanar, prevails manily around Thanjavur. 

Urummi Attam
          The whirring sound of 'urumi' providing the melody and the beat of the Thappu providing the rhythm, accompany the dance sequence in this kind of temple art form. This is performed especially in Amman temples during the month of Adi. Nowadays, this art form is found only in selected villages in a few districts.

Kali Attam
          Kali means joy or fun and games. This is also known as Koladi, Kolkali, Kambadi Kali and Kolaattam. Sticks one foot length are held in each hand and beaten to make a sharp, rasping sound as the dance proceeds with unique steps, twisting and turning. It is danced by both men and women, during festivals, auspicious days and weddings. The special qualities fo the dance are quickness, alertness, while being careful no to hurt the other dancers by the swinging 'kol'. Earlier, the 'kols' were brightly painted and decorated with brass rings, bells etc. The dancers used to wear ankle-bells. However, no special dress or make up was used for this dance.

Bommalattam
          Puppet shows are held in every village during festivals and fairs. Many different kinds of puppets are used for this show - cloth, wood, leather, etc. They are manipulated through strings or wires. The persons stand behind a screen and the puppets are held in front. 


          The stories enacted in the puppet shows are from puranas, epics and folklore. These shows are very entertaining and hold both adults and childrens entralled for many hours.


Villu Pattu
          The main singer here is accompanied by a chorus, musical instruments and a main instrument, the Villu or Bow, fixed with bells.


          The villu is struck rhythmically when the bells jingle in tune. The main singer relates a tale, interspersed with lively songs. 


Snake Dance
          Yet another typical speciality of the southern region is the snake-dance which arises from the popularity of the snake as a protective divinity, safeguarding the health and happiness of the rural folk.





          Usually danced by young girls dressed in a tight-fighting costume designed like the snake-skin. The dancer simulates the movements of the snake, writhing and creeping, at times making quick biting movements with head and hands. The raised hands held together look like the hood of a snake.


Oyil Kummi
          This is an ancient folk dance form popular in Trichi, Salem, Dharmapuri, Coimbatore and Periyar Districts. No other musical instruments are used in this dance except the ankle-bells. This dance is performed by men only, during temple festivals. Stories and episodes centering around Murugan and Valli are depicted in the songs. 


Theru Koothu
          Normally conducted during village festivals, during the months of Panguni and Aadi. This is performed where three or four streets meet; in open air, the place being lit by gas lights. A wooden bench is set up to seat the singers and the musical troupe. Here, make-up and costumes are considered of prime importance. Only men take part; the female roles also played by them. The performance consists of stoy-telling, dialogue-rendering, songs and dance, all performed by the artistes. Thus the ariste should have a very good performing ability, being an all-rounder. 




          The stories are taken from Puranas, epics such as Ramayana and Mahabharata, and also local folklore. The play starts in the late evening and gets over only during the small hours of the nights. The performance is so captivating that the audience are spell-bound unaware of the longs hours. Theru Koothu is more popular in the northern districts of Tamilnadu. The Koothu can be categorised as Nattu Koothu, including Vali Koothu, Kuravai Koothu etc. Samaya Koothu dealing with religious topics, Pei Koothu including Thunangai Koothu and Porkala Koothu dealing with martial events.


Bagavatha Nadanam
          This dance is performed inside a temple, around a lamp. The purpose is to worship Lord Krishna, and celebrate his frolics with the gopikas. This is performed during Ramanavami and Gokulashtami.




Kamandi or Kaman Pandigai
          This is celebrated to commemorate the puranic event when Manmada the God of Love was burnt to ashes by Siva in anger. The villagers separate themselves into two parties as Erintha katchi and Eriyatha katchi and a heated debate ensues. Kaman and Rathi, his consort, are main characters. 


Devaraattam
          Devarattam is a pure folk dance still preserved by the descendents of Veerapandiya Kattabomman dynasty at Kodangipatti of Madurai District. It was actually performed once a year near the temple and that too restricted to that community alone. Folklore research scholars have found that Devarattam is a combination of ancient 'muntherkuruvai' and 'pintherkuruvai' of the ancient Tamil Kings. It was performed in front of and at the chariot on the victorious return of the King and his army from battle field. Sometimes even the king and his marshalls would dance on the chariot deck. The soldiers and female dancers would form in lines and dance behind the chariot.




           Today, this dance does not have any songs but only danced to the beat of Urumi Melam, Thappu Melam and sometimes, a long flute. The dancers hold a kerchief in each hand and swing them as they dance. The person leading the dance wears false beard and a mask decorated with shells to look like teeth. He dances the first step, which others follow.


Chakkai Attam
          Teak woodenpieces size of 7 X 3/4 inch are held between the fingers which make the noise. Eight to ten dancers stand in a circle or parallel lines. The accompanying songs are generally about gods and goddesses.


Ottan Koothu
          Ottas, a small group of tribals, perform this form of ritual dance on festive occassions to depict episodes from epics and other ancient stories. The women folk also participate in the dance.

13 comments:

Anonymous said...

hmmm... very informative... :) :)

Plsss keep writing.. :)

Anonymous said...

Awesome information!!

Saravanan Angamuthu said...

Very useful about tamilnadu traditional dance and other

Tamizhavarman said...

Tamilanda,, ,,,,,

Mohan Doss said...

Hi Team , How can I contact for all those people at the same time , We have planned to invite my hometown for those program coming May month . if its possible , pls let me know ,below mentioned mobile no : 9865717169 or 09686998649

Kavitha Ashok said...

can i have it tamil too.if it is so it will be help full for my projects

ShivaShankary T said...

Hi... i would like to know the artists and invite them for a program in my place. Kindly mail me @
shivathangavel@gmail.com

Pls help me in this

Jayam KalaiKottam said...

Please contact above the artist program if required jayamkalaikottam@gmail.com

Jayam KalaiKottam said...

Please contact above the artist program if required jayamkalaikottam@gmail.com

Anonymous said...

good info

Anonymous said...

all are very nice clicks and explanations..but change the background image to enable reading..

Urthone said...

Chumma Tamilanda nu solleetu payan ille. Ethaavathu chei.

Urthone said...

Chumma Tamilanda nu solleetu payan ille. Ethaavathu chei.

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